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Physiological factors which may create or intensify Neuromuscular pain patterns:

Ischemia: Literally means inadequate blood flow. And with a lack of blood comes a lack of oxygen. Muscles need oxygen.  Whenever muscle fibers become too tight or too taut they will clamp down on the blood and lymph vessels that run through the muscle restricting the blood flow, decreasing oxygen and nutrition coming into the muscle and inhibiting the lymphatic removal of metabolic waste products which become trapped and irritate the muscle. When a muscle gets irritated, it contracts, thus creating a viscious pain cycle. Ischemic tissue becomes very tender to the touch. And ischemia alters the metabolism of a muscle, making it fatigue much quicker.
Throughout our lives we sustain lots of injury to soft tissues - from a simple injection to major surgery or the trauma of torn fibers in strains and sprains. Whenever there is insult or tearing of soft tissue, the body automatically restricts blood supply to that area.

Trigger Points A trigger point is a firm, palpable, highly irritable spot found in a tight band of muscle fibers that is generally characterized by extreme tenderness. Often called 'knots', These are small areas of normally low neurological activity within muscle fibers that have become irritated and locked into a contraction, becoming very highly activated and which refer pain into another area. When this contraction persists, the blood flow is restricted in this fiber and it becomes ischemic. (see ischemia) It is generally thought that this state is the result of an irregular amount of the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine being released from the nerve which stimulates that muscle. Trigger points often occur when the soft tissue is injured, overloaded, or strained.

Nerve Entrapment/Compression is the disturbance of a nerve by pressure from a muscle or bone.

Postural Distortion: There is an approximate line up of the body position that promotes efficient functioning of the joints and muscles. This positioning allows the forces of gravity to be dispersed evenly throughout the myofascial body. Whenever that posture is skewed, the length:tension relationship of the muscles and fascial meridians is unbalanced and the joints controlled by that myofascial pairing become compromised, leading to any number of mechanisms that can cause pain.

Biomechanical Dysfunction is faulty movement patterns. When the body moves, the joints are designed to articulate smoothly, gliding across each surface without strain or pressure. Each joint has varying degrees of mobility and often more than one joint is involved in any particular movment. There are 3 reasons for improper movement:
- True anatomical anomalies where the bones of the legs or arms are not the same length or in the foot if the 2nd toe is longer than the first, this will throw the foot off balance during a portion of the gait pattern and overloads the muscles of the leg.
-Environmental Factors: For example, runners who run consistantly in the same direction on a curved track  which is banked with one side slanted higher, will often develop a hip tilt as a result. By always keeping the same side of their body on the higher side of the bank, a muscle in the back called quadraus lumborum is persistantly overloaded and will cause a functional biomechanical compensation which can result in pain.
- Functional Deviation is a soft tissue imbalance. Muscles work in pairs and control joint movement. When one muscle is contracting, the partner muscle must stretch. When, for  whatever reason, one muscle becomes chronically short and contracted, it will put a strain on the antagonist and the joint they control will become skewed and compressed and movement/function will become impaired. This can cause a wearing away of the cartilege and ultimately pain.

Nutrition: simple things like too much caffeine or sugar will predispose a person to pain. When we ingest too much of those things they stimulate our nervous system. They give us that buzz; that's why we like them! But when the nervous system is overstimulated it looks to discharge energy. And it does so by firing impulses into the soft tissue (muscle). When a muscle receives those impulses, it contracts, thus causing tight muscles even when you think you are not using them. Our bodies must have nutrition that supports life function on a cellular level and in the right proportions. Inflammation can result from glutens, sugars, too much acidic intake. A lack of protein will prohibit cells from responding to muscle repair. Dehydration is a major cause of joint pain. the subject of nutrition is complex. Minerals such as magnesium and B vitamins have a strong influence. Suffice it to say we must feed our bodies the fuels they need in the proper amounts for optimal functioning.

Life Stresses/Emotional Wellness: Each body operates with a different threshold for pain. The normal tonus is measured in milliamperes/sec/sec. Anything that stimulates the nervous system, be it physical, chemical, emotional can excite our nervous system to the point that it exceeds our pain threshold and voila, we will experience the manifestation of pain in a previously sub-acute condition.
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